Voice over IP (VoIP) Expert​

Dr. Lavian is a Voice over IP (VoIP) expert who offers expert consulting services and patent analysis involving VoIP, SIP, and streaming media. VoIP is one of the fastest-growing segments of the telecom industry. As VoIP technologies grow, service providers are looking to implement turnkey solutions that include robust management interfaces and cloud-based functionality.

Voice over IP (VoIP), the acronym for voice over Internet Protocol, is a way to directly transmit voice or other audio information via Internet Protocol (IP) networks, bypassing traditional telephone carrier networks. VoIP Technologies integrate with conventional PSTN infrastructures, devices, and protocols; based on developments in SIP/RTP technologies. Deploy upon wireless or fixed data networks. Therefore, these technologies and protocols democratize communications in the workspace and at home, allowing anyone to engage in real-time communication regardless of location.

Underlying transport and control protocols typically include SIP, RTP (RTP/UDP), MGCP, H.323, and its extension, WebRTC, etc. VoIP projects often include the integration of VoIP (Voice over IP) and streaming media with SIP (Session Initiation Protocol), Internet protocols (TCP/IP), and the traditional Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). The VoIP system utilizes as the backbone of unified communications systems.

VoIP technologies are usually deployed in business processes, especially e-commerce and business continuity. VoIP technologies are built on SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) over Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) and other Internet protocols (TCP/IP). Some deployments include handset integration with text messaging capabilities over SMS or MMS, Instant Messaging (IM), and chat applications. Moreover, “technology” is more appropriate than “architecture.” The VoIP technologies concept indicates that an organization may use any media streaming technology, system, method, or application that utilizes VoIP application layer protocols.

Dr. Lavian’s extensive experience with VoIP systems and protocols, audio/video conferencing, and streaming technologies, primarily as implemented through the TCP/IP protocol suite, gives him a keen understanding of the logic behind VoIP systems and streaming and their component application, transport, network, data link, and physical layers. However, He is intimately familiar with the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) and is proficient in networking and communications technologies, including:

VoIP Technologies

The following are Dr. Tal Lavian’s areas of expertise in VoIP:

  • Voice over IP (VoIP) expert consulting in Multimedia, audio, and video streaming, video/audio conferencing, streaming media, and music streaming over TCP/IP protocol stack using standard Internet protocols such as TCP, UDP, IP, HTTP, HTML, and Web services.
  • Integration of VoIP and streaming media with SIP, Internet protocols (TCP/IP), PSTN, and VoIP systems as the backbone of unified communicants.
  • Integration of such protocols and services with short message technologies, including text messaging, SMS, MMS, Instant Messaging (IM), and chat applications.
  • Implementing such technologies over handsets, mobile devices, smartphones, cellular networks, wireless technologies, architectures, standards, systems, and backend infrastructure.
  • Streaming protocols, VoIP protocols, IP telephony, SIP, RTP, H.323, MGCP, and codecs.
  • Bandwidth, Quality of Service (QoS) as related to conferencing and media streaming
  • PSTN, SS7, POTS, Pulse Dialing and DTMF.
  • RTP, RTCP, H.323, and SIP.
  • VoIP Gateways, Gatekeepers, and Terminals.


PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network), used since the early 1900s, is the old-world traditional circuit-switched telephone network for voice communication. Phone device is known by several names, including landlines, Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS), and telephone sets. Pulse dialing technology utilizes the telephone and the exchange so subscribers can dial one another directly. Later, Dual-Tone Multi-Frequency (DTMF) signaling introduce as part of the signaling system. However, It uses the voice-frequency band over telephone lines, facilitating communication between telephone equipment and other communications devices and switching centers.

Therefore, Signaling System Seven was the architecture used for performing out-of-band signaling in support of the call-establishment, billing, routing, and information-exchange functions of the public switched telephone network (PSTN).

VoIP Protocols

Voice over IP (VoIP)

There are numerous VoIP protocols, including two of the leading standard-based protocols. Each approach involves the use of multiple protocols. The main difference between one VoIP configuration and another is signaling protocols. RTP and RTCP are the media protocols. Various codecs also utilize in conjunction with different VoIP technology approaches.

VoIP Network Components

There are various components utilizes in a VoIP network; some of them are optional and design for a specific purpose:


The Gatekeeper is optional in the H.323 system and utilizes primarily for admission control and address resolution. Additional functionality may enable the Gatekeeper to allow calls to place directly, or it may route the call signaling through itself to perform functions such as “follow-me,” “find-me,” and “forward on busy,” some of which are unique to VoIP.


The Gateway performs the role of an actual protocol translation server that interconnects data communications networks with different protocols. In conclusion, The Gateway comprises subcomponents: the Media Gateway Controller (MGC) and the Media Gateway (MG).

Telephony Systems

Telephony systems are a type of technology that enables people to communicate with each other over long distances through a network of interconnected devices. This technology is based on sending and receiving audio signals through telephone handsets, routers, switches, and servers. These devices work together to transmit audio signals from one location to another, allowing people to have real-time conversations with each other regardless of their location. In addition to the basic functionality of transmitting audio signals, telephony systems also incorporate advanced features such as caller ID, call forwarding, and voicemail. These features enable people to easily manage incoming and outgoing calls, ensuring they never miss important communication. Furthermore, telephony systems are integrated with other technologies, such as the internet and computer systems, allowing even greater flexibility and functionality. Overall, telephony systems are an essential technology that has dramatically improved the way we communicate with each other.