Routing & Switching

Dr. Lavian offers expert consulting services for routing protocols, routers, switch architecture and design, standards, and network protocols. His expertise in routing and switching includes communications systems, LAN, WAN, and networking infrastructure.

Dr. Lavian has extensive hands-on experience and has conducted extensive research in telecommunications, network communications, and Internet technologies. Therefore, he designed software for switches, routers, and network communications equipment and developed systems and architectures for managing them. Dr. Lavian offers consulting services regarding routing, switching, and communication equipment architectures and design.

He has the necessary research and development background to review and analyze the technical aspects of routing and switching within the broader contexts of network communications systems and Internet architecture and protocols.

A router is a networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks. The router switching fabric is the heart of the router; it connects the input and output ports. Router architecture is designed in such a way that the routers  equip to perform two main functions:

  • Process routable protocols.
  • Use routing protocols to determine the best path.

Network infrastructure comprises the hardware and software resources that enable network connectivity, communication, operations, and management of enterprise and service provider networks. Therefore, It provides the communication path and services between users, processes, applications, services, and devices.

Network infrastructure is Telecomm NET’s primary area of expertise grounded in academic knowledge and hands-on industry experience in product development and innovation.

Routing & Switching Protocols

Routing and switching protocols manage data flow within a computer network. Routing protocols determine the best path for data to travel between devices on a network, while switching protocols control data flow within a network. Routing protocols use algorithms to determine the most efficient path for data travel based on network congestion and available bandwidth. Some examples of routing protocols include Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) and Open Shortest Path First (OSPF). On the other hand, switching protocols are used to direct data to its destination within a network. They operate at the data link layer of the OSI model and use MAC addresses to identify and switch data between devices. Some examples of switching protocols include Ethernet and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). Routing and switching protocols are essential for modern computer networks’ efficient and reliable operation.

Routers and Switches Hardware Technologies

Routers and switches are two networking hardware devices used to manage data flow within a computer network. Routers connect different networks and route data between them, while switches connect devices within a single network and direct data to its destination. Both routers and switches use specialized hardware and software to perform their functions.

Routers typically have several ports for connecting to other devices or networks and a built-in processor and memory for running the routing software. Some routers also have additional features, such as built-in firewalls and virtual private network (VPN) support. Switches also have multiple ports for connecting devices and a switching fabric that handles data flow within the switch. Some switches also have advanced features, such as Quality of Service (QoS) support and port aggregation.

Overall, routers and switches are critical components of modern computer networks and play a crucial role in managing data flow between devices.

Routing and Switching Experience and Expertise

Drawing on experience in researching, designing, developing, and implementing real-world network software, Dr. Lavian’s expertise includes:

  • Wired networking: core and edge routers, switches, load balancers, and SD-WAN.
  • Wireless networking: Access Points, Wireless Controllers, and Data and Control Planes.
  • Networking principles, software, and hardware architectures, ASIC, firmware, high-speed backplanes, switch fabric, control planes, data planes, blocking and non-blocking architectures, priority queuing, time-to-live, packet addressing, and routing/switching table structures.
  • Routers, switches, gateways, routing Switching expert services, IETF RFC standards that define relevant functional architectures, protocol specifications, and forwarding.
  • Enterprise and Service Provider cable networks Modems, Headend, and Fiber Optic DWDM infrastructure.
  • Network Security: Firewalls, VPNs, IPSec, Tunneling, Content Filtering, and Security Gateways.
  • Bandwidth throttling, Quality of Service, QoS, Priority queuing, and Traffic Classification.
  • Network Management: MIBs, Traps, Logs, SNMP, FCAPS, Monitoring, and Troubleshooting.
  • Industry standards: IETF, IEEE, ITU-T, 3GPP, Wi-Fi, ISO, and IEC.
  • Communications protocols: TCP/IP, LDAP, IGMP, ARP, DNS, DHCP, RIP, IGRP, OSPF, GRE, BGP, and IS-IS.
  • Cable communications protocols: DOCSIS and CATVS.
  • OSI layers 1-7, including technologies and standards in product implementations.
  • LAN and WAN technologies: IEEE 802.1, 802.3, 802.11, 802.15.
  • Public switched telephone networks, circuit switching, SS7, SDH, and SONET.
  • IPv4, IPv6, LAN, WAN, VPN, tunneling, routing protocols, RIP, BGP, MPLS, OSPF, multicast, DNS, QoS, switching, packet switching, layer-2 switching, layer-3 switching, layer-4 switching, application switching, load balancing, and firewalls.

Network Architecture

Networks may be wired or wireless. A wireless network is a computer network that uses wireless data connections between network nodes. Wireless networking eliminates cables and wires while providing the same capabilities as a wired network. There are two primary uses for wireless networking: private use within a single building or group of buildings, and public use, for example, connecting to public access points, most often in urban areas. However, wireless networking is found in homes, enterprise campuses, and service provider carrier networks.

Moreover, The broadband cable network is a typical universally used internet-to-home technology. The term distinguishes old network architectures, especially the ‘wired pair’ telephone line systems. Broadband cable has the infrastructure for delivering high-speed data and digital services to subscriber locations. It is sometimes described as ‘always on’ because it uses a point-to-multipoint topology.

OSI Communication Layers

Networks Router

Computer Networks use the OSI model to allow hardware and software to communicate effectively. The OSI model utilizes to communicate, organize, and run information through the network. Therefore, This model lays out separate layers for networking functions such as flow control and error recovery. Layer 1 – Physical Layer; Layer 2 – Data Link; Layer 3 – Network; Layer 4 – Transport; Layer 5 – Session; Layer 6 – Presentation; and Layer 7 – Application. However, each model layer performs a specific function, allowing disparate hardware and software communications systems to interact effectively.

Navigating the World of Routing and Switching Expertise

  • Routing Protocols: Steering Data Through Networks

    Routing is the backbone of efficient data transmission in complex networks. Experts in routing and switching are proficient in various routing protocols that determine the best paths for data packets. Key protocols include OSPF (Open Shortest Path First), EIGRP (Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol), and BGP (Border Gateway Protocol). Understanding the nuances of these protocols is crucial for optimizing network performance.

  • Switching Technologies: The Heart of Local Networks

    Local area networks (LANs) rely on switching technologies to forward data frames to their intended destinations efficiently. Routing and switching experts are well-versed in Ethernet, the prevailing LAN technology. They understand how Ethernet switches operate, including MAC address learning, VLAN segmentation, and loop prevention mechanisms.

  • VLANs: Isolating and Segmenting Traffic

    Virtual LANs (VLANs) enable network administrators to segment a physical network into multiple isolated networks logically. Routing and switching specialists design and implement VLANs to improve network efficiency and security. They also employ techniques like trunking and VLAN tagging to ensure proper VLAN communication.

  • Inter-VLAN Routing: Bridging Segmented Networks

    While VLANs isolate network segments, there are instances where communication between VLANs is necessary. Experts in this field configure routers to perform inter-VLAN routing, allowing data to flow between segmented networks while maintaining security boundaries.

  • Routing Table Optimization: Efficient Data Forwarding

    Routing tables are at the core of routing decisions. Specialists in routing and switching understand how to optimize these tables to ensure efficient data forwarding. This includes route summarization to reduce table size and route aggregation to minimize routing updates.

  • Spanning Tree Protocol (STP): Preventing Loops

    Loop prevention in Ethernet networks is achieved through protocols like Spanning Tree Protocol (STP). Networking experts are skilled in configuring and tuning STP to prevent network loops while maintaining redundancy.

  • Quality of Service (QoS) for Traffic Prioritization

    In networks with diverse traffic types, QoS mechanisms are vital. Routing and switching specialists implement QoS policies to prioritize critical data, voice, or video traffic. They use traffic classification, queuing, and shaping techniques to ensure smooth traffic flow.

  • IPv6 Routing: Preparing for the Future

    As IPv4 addresses become scarce, IPv6 adoption is essential. Experts in routing and switching are well-prepared for this transition. They configure routers and switches to support IPv6 routing, ensuring seamless communication in dual-stack environments.

Routing and switching expertise encompasses a deep understanding of routing protocols, switching technologies, VLAN management, inter-VLAN routing, routing table optimization, loop prevention mechanisms, QoS policies, and IPv6 implementation. With this knowledge, specialists create robust and efficient networks that form the backbone of modern digital infrastructures.